Aspects of Islamic History
M. A. Bari
Ever since the first man and woman stepped on the earth,
the history of human civilisation started rolling. In a broader sense that was also the beginning of the "Islamic history".
The first man Adam (upon him be peace) was a "Muslim", an obedient servant of Allah who wholeheartedly submitted to the will
of his Lord. The words 'Islam' and 'Muslim' originate from the same Arabic root which mean 'peace' and 'submission'. Adam
was a Prophet too, who taught his progeny how to lead their life as true servants of God. From Adam to Muhammad (peace and
blessings be upon them) all the Prophets of God were bestowed with the same message, the message of teaching and leading humanity
to live in the world according to the divine will. As such they were all "Muslims".
Human being is the emissary or caliph (al-Qur'an 2:30) of
God on earth. Man is created with the free will to choose between right and wrong. Two inherent but contrasting nature is
imbedded within him, the ability to do good or evil (al-Qur'an 91:8). This is an immense test for him. But man is also born
in nature (fitra), the nature of submission to the will of his Creator. According to a tradition from Prophet Muhammad, "every
child is a born Muslim…". This is a trust and a heavy burden on every human being. Unfortunately, many have decided
to follow their whims and desires. God, out of His love and compassion, sent Prophets to warn and remind these people of their
responsibility. The Qur'an mentions twenty five of these envoys to man. Out of them, Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham), Musa (Moses)
and Isa (Jesus) occupy special places in Islamic history.
The "Muslim history" begins with Prophet Muhammad who was
a direct descendant of Prophet Ibrahim through his eldest son Ismail (Ishmael). While the messages of other Prophets were
confined to time and space, Prophet Muhammad was sent for the whole of humanity and for all time to come. He is a blessing
for the universe (al-Qur'an 21:107) and he started his mission by addressing, "O! mankind," rather than "O! my people". Although
he initiated his task from his own people of Arabia, Islam transcended all boundaries of race, colour and land. Within a decade
after his death Islam spread like wildfire and engulfed the then Persian and Roman empires. Islam's overwhelming message of
love, justice and balance won the hearts and minds of the 'conquered' people. For those who know little about Islam it was
a miracle that elevated a barbaric people into the peak of human civility. In actual fact, the early followers of Islam created
a model society with their sacrifice against all possible odds.
After Prophet Muhammad's death his mantle was carried forward
by his blessed companions. The four rightly guided Caliphs ruled the embryonic Muslim empire with extreme simplicity and humility
with, of course, utmost efficiency. The guidance of the Qur'an and the teachings of the Prophet were at the core of their
success. Their thirty-year rule was followed by monarchy, first the Umayyads and then the Abbasids. The Umayyads ruled for
about one hundred years from Damascus and expanded the frontiers of the Muslim empire from Spain in the West to China in the
East. When their rule ended the Muslim empire was, for the first time, divided into two. The Abbasids took over the main flank
and transferred their capital to Baghdad. The Umayyads were left undisturbed with their sovereignty in Spain. The Muslim rule
in Spain continued for nearly eight hundred years.
During the 500-year Abbasid rule the Muslim empire was at
the peak of glory and prosperity. Creative knowledge and scholarship flourished across the Muslim world. The scholars in the
major cities opened up new frontiers of knowledge which later directly influenced the European Renaissance. The treasures
of Greek and Indian knowledge were revived, digested and enhanced effectively by them. Unlike in the then Christian Europe,
the Muslim scholars were encouraged and patronised by the ruling class in their challenging works of science and other creative
subjects. However, as time passed and the new lands and people were joining the fold of Islam, the central authority was gradually
diminishing. This had its long-term disastrous effect in all spheres of Muslim life.
During the last decades of Abbasid khilafah the ruling class
became engrossed with the pleasure of life. With the material ascendancy and intellectual supremacy entered the flood of social
and moral diseases, reminiscent of all the collapsing empires. As a result, the central authority started to crumble by the
intrigue of the people in the upper echelon of the ruling elites. This invited, in 1258, the unprecedented destruction of
Baghdad and the end of Abbasid rule by the barbaric Tatar hoards. Countless Muslim scholars, ulema and people in authority
were butchered by the them. Libraries and seminaries were decimated. For some time, the rest of the empire was at the mercy
of the Tatar military machine. The Muslim world could never regain from this catastrophe. It was a dark episode leading to
serious internal convulsion within the Muslim nation. At that juncture of history the Ottoman Turks came forward and upheld
the mantle of the Muslim empire. On another front, a mysterious event was unfolding. The descendants of the Tatar victors
converted themselves to Islam and later on established the Muslim rule in India.
However, the downward spiral of the Muslim power continued
unabated. The Muslim nation lost its central mooring and became too fragmented. While the Ottoman conquest was gaining land
and people in Eastern Europe, Muslims elsewhere were gradually giving in to the emerging European powers. The fall of Granada
in 1492 sealed the fate of Islam in the new world of European expansion. The expulsion and forced conversion of Muslims by
a new Spain could not be countered even by the military might of the Turks.
While Europe was reinvigorated by their new-found intellectual
freedom the intellectual stagnation and blind following (taqlid) of the Muslim scholars weakened them further. This put a
lid on Muslim creativity. They failed to maintain pace with the European progress which was moving fast. The post-Renaissance
Europe harnessed its potential and started expanding their sphere of influence across the world. The Muslim land became vulnerable
to the their expansionist expeditions and, like a house of cards, they were falling apart. Although there were stiff and heroic
resistances from some religious leaders in many places they were not match to the European technological and military superiority.
After some humiliating defeats in the Balkans the Ottoman Turks lost its stomach to fight back. The last nail in their coffin
came when, in 1924, the already weak Ottoman khilafah was abolished. The new Turkish leaders declared war against their historical
past by attempting to sever its link with the khilafah.
Apart from a few nominally independent Muslim territories,
colonisation of Muslim land was total. This brought havoc in the Muslim world. The unparalleled physical, intellectual and
cultural trauma created countless problems - intellectual, moral, theological, social and cultural. The legacy of these still
continues today. Challenges to the Muslim people were enormous. De-colonisation and rebuilding of the Muslim nation were extremely
difficult. Even when the Muslim lands were granted independence they were systematically truncated and arbitrarily divided,
only to be governed by the tyrants and despots, the brain-children of the colonial era. The legacy today is division, disharmony,
distrust and fear. The Muslim world is yet to cope with these.
The Muslim world now consists of more than fifty independent
nation states with enormous resources and human potential. But most of them are run by the autocratic regimes with no accountability
to anyone except their whims. Many of them are, in fact, at war with their own people. Their glorious past and present geo-political
importance have made them the victim of the global media onslaught. They are the underdogs in the world community. In spite
of unparalleled atrocities and injustices done to them in many places, e.g., Palestine and Kashmir, they have a very bad image
in the world. Often they are presented as uncivilised and barbaric.
The world today is more divided than ever before. Economic
disparity, political strangulation, cultural hegemony and military superiority by some over the rest of the humanity is leading
mankind toward disintegration. Religious, moral and ethical values are being trampled upon in the name of modernity and liberalisation.
Societies are losing their age-old fabric and giving in to permissiveness. The situation is grim indeed. How can mankind save
themselves from the dilemma between modernity and divine values?
Fourteen hundred years ago Islam challenged the world full
of oppression, injustice and perversion. It liberated human being from the slavery of its own creation. It built a society
on the basis of love, compassion, equality and freedom. Can the same Islam, with its unadulterated message and uncompromising
principles, withstand the acid test of modern challenge? It all depends on the conviction and commitment of its adherents.
As no nation or community has monopoly over the divine messages brought by the Prophets, it remains to be seen who can rise
up to the demand of time.