"With Him are the Keys of the Unseen"
Sheikh Hātim al-`Awnī, professor at Umm al-Qurā University
Allah says: "With him are the keys of the Unseen. No one knows them save He. And He knows what
is in the land and the sea. Not a leaf falls but He knows it, not a grain amid the darkness of the earth, naught of wet or
dry but (it is noted) in a clear record." [Sūrah al-An`ām: 59]
There can be no doubt that Allah has kept knowledge
of the Unseen his exclusive domain.
He says: "No one who is in the heavens and the Earth knows the Unseen except Allah;
and they do not know when they shall be resurrected." [Sūrah al-Naml: 65]
Allah reveals some matters of the
Unseen to his select servants among the angels and the Prophets. He does not reveal to them everything, only what He wishes
Created beings have not been made capable of knowing everything of the Unseen. How could it be otherwise
when Allah Himself is the greatest of all things Unseen. Can anyone compass Allah with their knowledge?
When we read
the story of Adam’s creation in the Qur’ān, we can see clearly that the angels did not have knowledge of the Unseen.
relates to us the dialogue that transpired between Him and the angels at that time:
And when your Lord said to the
angels, ‘I am going to place in the earth a vicegerent.’, they said: ‘What! Would you place therein such
as shall make mischief in it and shed blood, while we celebrate Your praise and extol Your holiness?’ He said: ‘Surely
I know what you do not know.’
And He taught Adam the names of all things; then He placed them before the angels,
and said: ‘Tell me the names of these if you are right.’ They said: Glory be to You! We have no knowledge but
that which You have taught us. Surely You are the Knowing, the Wise.’
He said: ‘O Adam! Inform them of
their names.’ Then when he had informed them of their names, (Allah) said: ‘Did I not say to you that I surely
know what is Unseen in the heavens and the Earth, and I know what you manifest and what you hide?" [Sūrah al-Baqarah:
Allah also tells us in the Qur’ān that the Prophets (peace be upon him) do not possess any knowledge
of the Unseen save what He chooses to reveal to them.
He says: "Say (O Muhammad): I do not say to you that I possess
Allah’s treasures, nor that I have knowledge of the Unseen. I do not say to you that I am an angel. I follow only that
which has been revealed to me." [Sūrah al-An`ām: 50]
In this verse, Allah states clearly to us that Prophet
Muhammad (peace be upon him) did not know everything about the Unseen. Indeed, in this verse Allah had instructed him to tell
his followers directly that he did not have such knowledge.
Indeed, the Prophet (peace be upon him) did not even know
everything that was going to happen to him during the course of his life. He knew only some of these things – what Allah
chose to reveal to him.
Allah commands him in the Qur’ān to convey this fact to the people: "Say (O Muhammad):
I do not possess for myself any benefit or harm except what Allah wills. If I had known the Unseen, I would have brought on
for myself a lot of good and nothing evil would ever befall me. I am but a giver of warnings and of glad tidings for a people
who believe." [Sūrah al-A`rāf: 188]
This should become all the more obvious to us when we study the Prophet’s
biography. From the events of His life, we can clearly see that he had no knowledge of the Unseen except what Allah had revealed
to him. How often did he and his Companions suffer from misfortune and adversity? If he had known the Unseen, he would have
avoided these hardships and would have protected his Companions from them. If a person were to look for examples of such misfortunes
from the Prophet’s biography, he would find that indeed almost all his biography is a series of trials and hardships.
deviant people who wish to attribute to themselves and others the ability to know the Unseen, cite certain spurious evidence
from the Sunnah to support the idea that the Prophet (peace be upon him) and others can possess such knowledge.
like to cite the hadīth attributed to Ibn `Umar that the Prophet (peace be upon him) supposedly said: "Allah raised up the
world for me so I could look upon it and see what will exist on it until the Day of Judgment just as I see the palm of my
hand. Allah has made it as clear for me as it was for the Prophets before me."
This is a spurious hadīth. 1 It is wrong to even attribute this statement to the Prophet (peace be upon him), let alone use it to prove a point
that is in direct contradiction to the Qur’ān.
Another hadīth that they often cite is a statement attributed
to the Companion Abū Dharr al-Ghifārī, whereby he is to have said: "Muhammad (peace be upon him) had left us in the following
state: that there was not even a bird in the sky flapping its wings without his having already imparted to us knowledge about
There is disagreement about its chain of transmission. 2 However,
the pertinent question here is: What does the hadīth mean?
In his book entitled Gharīb al-Hadīth, al-Khattābī
explains the hadīth as saying that the Prophet (peace be upon him) completely and thoroughly expounded on Islam so that nothing
remained ambiguous. He even explained to them all the rulings related to birds – what of them is lawful and what is
unlawful, how they should be slaughtered, what a pilgrim must pay if he kills one during the Hajj, and so forth. [Gharīb
We know that this is certainly what Abū Dharr had meant, because al-Tabarānī relates the hadīth
with the following wording:
Abū Dharr said: "Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) had left us in the following
state: that there was not even a bird flapping its wings in the air without his having already imparted to us knowledge about
it. Then he said (peace be upon him): ‘Nothing remains that brings you closer to Paradise or further from the Hellfire
except that it has been explained to you’." [al-Mu`jam al-Kabīr (2/155-156)]
This more complete narration
of the hadīth makes it clear that what the Companions had learned about birds was in relation to the Islamic rulings about
them. They were not given a full categorization of bird species or told what was going to happen to each and every one of
them until the Day of Judgment. No rational person would even entertain such an absurd idea.
After the unambiguous
and indisputable evidence from the Qur’ān and Sunnah that only Allah has knowledge of the Unseen, is it right for someone
to bring forth spurious and inconclusive evidence to the contrary? Such is the conduct of people in whose heart is a disease.
Allah says: "He is the one who revealed to you the Book. In it are clear verses – they are the basis of the
Book – and others that are allegorical. As for those in whose heart is a disease, they seek after what is allegorical
seeking discord and seeking their own interpretation. No one knows their interpretation save Allah; and those who are firm
in knowledge say: ‘We believe in it. It is all from our Lord.’ None will take heed except people of understanding."
[Sūrah Āl `Imrān: 7]
1. This hadīth is mentioned by al-Qastallānī in his
book al-Mawāhib al-Ladunniyah (3/559) in which he quotes it from al-Tabarānī. Al-Tabarānī mentions this hadīth in al-Mu`jam
al-Kabīr, as mentioned by al-Haythamī in Majma` al-Zawā’id (8/287) and by Abū Nu`aym in Hilyat al-Awliyā’
(6/101). Na`īm b. Hammād relates the same hadīth in al-Fitan, (1/27 No. 2).
All these narration are through
Sa`īd b. Sinān through Abū al-Zāhiriyah through Kuthayr b. Murrah from Ibn `Umar. Ibn Hajr, in ,em>al-Taqrīb (No.
2333), classifies Sa`īd b. Sinān al-Humsī as: "someone to be abandoned". Al-Dāraqutnī and others have accused him of fabricating
For this reason, we fund that al-Haythamī, when he records this hadīth, takes pains to mention how severely
weak Sa`īd b. Sinān is as a narrator. [Majma` al-Zawā’id (8/287)]
This hadīth is related by Ahmad in his Musnad (21361,21439, and 21440), al-Tabarāni in al-Mu`jam al-Kabīr (2/155-156
No. 1647), Ibn Hibbān in his Sahīh (No. 65), and others.
According to al-Dāraqutrnī, it is narrated by Mundhir
al-Thawrī with an incomplete chain of transmission from Abū Dharr. Though its incompleteness is sufficient for the hadīth
to be weak, there are other narrations that support its meaning and lend credence to it.